Role of Mangroves in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

Role of Mangroves in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

The capacity of mangroves, sea grasses, and salt marshes to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is becoming increasingly recognized at an international level. Of all the biological carbon, also termed as ’green carbon’, captured in the world, over half (55%) is captured by mangroves, sea grasses, salt marshes, and other marine living organisms, which are also known more specifically as ’blue carbon’.

Mangroves, salt marshes, and sea grasses form much of the earth’s blue carbon sinks[2]. These coastal vegetations sequester carbon far more effectively (up to 100 times faster) and more permanently than terrestrial forests. Further, studies have shown that per hectare, mangrove forests store up to five times more carbon than most other tropical forests around the world. This ability of mangroves and other coastal vegetation to store such large amounts of carbon is, in part, due to the deep, organic rich soils in which they thrive. The entangled root systems of mangroves, which anchor the plants into underwater sediment, slow down incoming tidal waters, allowing organic and inorganic material to settle into the sediment surface. The sediments beneath these habitats are characterized by typically low oxygen conditions, slowing down the decay process and rates, resulting in much greater amounts of carbon accumulating in the soil. In fact, mangroves have more carbon in their soil alone than most tropical forests have in all their biomass and soil combined.

Mangroves roots

Carbon offsets based on the protection and restoration of coastal vegetation could therefore be far more cost effective than current approaches focused on terrestrial and peat forests, even before taking into consideration the enormous additional benefits to fisheries, coastal protection, and the livelihoods of coastal inhabitants.Therefore, cutting down mangroves means releasing larger amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. This in turn causes the wet soil to dry up, leading to the release of even more stored carbon into the atmosphere. Estimates suggest a range of between 150 million to 1 billion tonnes of CO2 that is emitted annually due to the destruction of mangrove forests globally. Thus, at the global scale, coastal wetland destruction could account for 1-3% of industrial emissions; a number that is on the rise as more and more coastal wetlands are destroyed every year around the world.

Thus, mangrove forests offer a unique and highly efficient approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Challenges Facing Mangrove Ecosystems

However, despite such diversity in the roles of mangroves, these ecosystems are still often seen as valueless wastelands available for other uses. Such negligence toward protecting mangroves is leading to a faster rate of destruction for mangroves all over the world than for tropical forests. The most substantial loss of the world’s mangrove cover is due to their conversion to other land uses, such as urban area expansion, industrial development, aquaculture, agricultural development, and charcoal making. Among these, shrimp aquaculture has been the single biggest driver of mangrove destruction, particularly in Southeast Asia. Since the 1970s, aquaculture development has decimated vast areas of mangrove forests in the Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam, Java and Kalimantan in Indonesia, and the Philippines. Every year thousands of tons of shrimps from aquaculture farms from Southeast Asia are exported to western markets.

Mangrove

One of the key challenges facing mangrove conservation is inadequate understanding of their multiple roles due to poor research, particularly in the areas of climate change mitigation and adaptation. As compared to terrestrial ecosystems, the research focus on coastal and marine systems is about a decade behind. There are isolated examples of a few very useful research studies, but a comprehensive account of the various ecological, economic, and bio-physical roles played by mangrove forests is still lacking. In order to raise awareness of the multiple benefits of mangrove ecosystems, there is a need to conduct more research and also focus more on expanding mangrove areas in participation with local communities and other key stakeholders.

RECOFTC has been following a similar approach in eastern Thailand in Pred Nai village, Trat Province, with very encouraging results for the past two decades. Based on a successful engagement with local communities to restore a large area of degraded mangroves, the project is now expanding its engagement with neighboring villages through a learning network established at the grassroots level. A community based learning center established in Pred Nai village links natural resource and environmental conservation initiatives at the local level and establishes communication between concerned units at the provincial level and community members who play a vital role in natural resource conservation in Trat. These efforts are also aimed at promoting policy support for local authority decentralization, and providing technical and technological support to local officers on natural resources management planning, and strategies on strengthening community self-management. This is an important initiative to better understand the roles of mangroves in local livelihoods and also for climate change mitigation and adaptation at the local level.

Related links:

Mangroves for the Future (MFF) program, IUCN

FAO’s work on mangrove conservation and management
– See more at: http://www.recoftc.org/site/resources/Mangroves-more-Carbon-Rich-and-Important-for-Climate-Change.php#sthash.oBIgD5cA.dpuf

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Mangrove Tree Park (Not compare..)

Mangrove Tree Park
Posted on 26 March 2010.
CONTRIBUTED BY CHRISTY SUTTON
Just after you pass Arume on the East coast of Okinawa, and before you reach the village of Higashi you will find the Mangrove Tree Park, a well-maintained nature preserve. You will cross over a bridge and see that a river extends inland and is lined on both sides by mangrove trees. If time and money permit, you can rent a canoe and make a day out of hiking and exploring this uniquely subtropical phenomenon of salt water sustainable trees.
What to expect: A boardwalk takes you on a short walk alongside, in between and even above the beautifully unique mangrove trees. Birds will create a melodious tune for you as you stroll along this nature trail. An opportunity to find small marine creatures in the shallow water near the tree roots will await you around every corner as well. There is a lookout point that takes you closer to the river and at high tide may even bring the river closer to you! There is a paved road that runs between the boardwalk and the hillside. We did not take this road past the boardwalk because of time restraints, but did not see any signs posted to deter explorers.
Mangrove
We chose the hillside route to return to the parking lot and counted 398 steps– mostly up and sometimes down. (Hint, Hint—counting steps gives little ones something else to do other than complaining while hiking!!) On this route, you are out of the mangroves and into a jungle setting – dirt trails and steep, rugged steps. There are some fun sliding rails along this route, but be prepared for high speed and possible catastrophic landings!! The good thing is that there are multiple places to turn off and get back to the paved road if you decide its not the right terrain for your group. Altogether we spent about 40 minutes on the circular trail. Depending on your curiosity and interest in the trees and wildlife, this could vary.
We saw many Japanese folks enjoying the canoes along the river. The site of the boat landing allows you to go upriver into the mangrove-lined tributaries or downriver into the larger, open bay area heading out to the Pacific. Because we did not have time to canoe, I do not know for sure if the price includes a guide. We saw a lot of workers though, so I would expect so. We hope to return for canoeing this summer.
Mangrove1
The parking lot is quite small so be prepared to park across the highway on a side street. There is a jungle gym for the kids to enjoy and public restrooms right next to the parking lot. Also, a large map that shows the river, boardwalk, trails and steps is mounted in the parking lot (no English translation, but good pictures).
Directions: Out Kadena Gate 2 to the Expressway, head North to Nago. Exit at Ginoza, 2nd to last stop heading north. Turn left onto Rt 329, through Ginoza and toward Nago (don’t be confused, you will NOT actually go to Nago, but the signs lead you that way). Continue on 329 past Camp Schwab Gates 1 and 2 on your right. You’re about ½ way at this point. Just past Camp Schwab you’ll make a right turn onto Rte 331. It is clearly marked with road signs. This road will twist and turn along the coast up and down through many villages—a visual treat in itself. About 20 minutes later you will pass through Arume, start watching for a bridge clearly designated by a river on one side and a large bay on the other. The park is the first left AFTER the bridge. ( If you’ve gone into Higashi you have gone too far. Turn around and calculate 2km back…) (And if you take the first RIGHT after the bridge, you’ll be headed to the Strawberry fields.)

Mangroves Important for Climate Change (1)

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Dr. Chandra Silori, Coordinator of RECOFTC’s Grassroots Capacity Building for REDD+ project, takes an in-depth look at mangroves, outlining the many critical benefits that these ecosystems provide and examining the uniquely powerful abilities of these “blue carbon sinks” to aid in climate change mitigation and adaptation.
Mangroves Include 73 Species in 123 Countries
Mangroves are highly productive, biodiversity-rich, inter-tidal forest ecosystems adapted to survive in the harsh interface between land and sea. Mangrove plants are mostly trees and large shrubs, but also include ferns and a palm species. According to the 2010 World Atlas of Mangroves[1], there are a total of 73 species and hybrids, which are considered to be true mangroves – those that have adapted to mangrove environments and are rarely found elsewhere. Thirty-eight of these species might be considered ‘core species’ that typify mangroves and dominate in most locations. The remainder are either not so abundant or are found mostly on the fringes of mangrove habitats. Mangrove

Mangroves are found in 123 countries, covering an area of 152,360 km2. However, despite wide distribution, over two-thirds of the world’s mangroves are found in just 12 countries, with Indonesia alone accounting for over 20% of the total mangrove cover of the world. On a regional scale, Southeast Asia has one-third (51,049 km2) of the world’s mangroves – more than any other region in the world. This can be attributed to the region’s highly conducive environment for the growth of mangrove forests, characterized by such qualities as a humid climate, high rainfall, and a number of rivers with large deltas supplying freshwater and sediments. The important ones include the Ayeyarwady delta in Myanmar (Burma), the Mekong in Vietnam, and the extensive deltaic coastline along southern Papua in Indonesia. Moreover, the region is also known as the global center of mangrove diversity, with 51 species, which is 71% of the total mangrove species found all over the world.

Other large areas of mangrove forests are found along the coastlines of South and Central America and West and Central Africa, northeast India and northern Australia. The best known area for mangroves in the whole world is the Sundarbans, a vast mangrove forest that spreads across the boundary between India and Bangladesh and covers an area of 6,500 km2, extending up to 85 km inland.
Coastal Populations Depend on Mangroves
Mangrove habitat

Mangroves are one of the most productive ecosystems on the earth. They perform a variety of useful ecological, bio-physical, and socio-economic functions, and are the source of a multitude of benefits to coastal populations.

The timber from mangrove forests is used for a variety of purposes, including for making houses, boats, and fish traps. In many countries, mangrove wood is used to produce charcoal, and as firewood. There are a number of other non-timber benefits extracted from the range of mangrove forest species, including honey, tannin from bark, thatch material, edible fruits, fodder,

and medicinal properties of certain species with potential commercial applications and recreational values.

The entangled roots of mangrove forests help to stabilize coastal areas through sediment capture and bio-filtration of nutrients and some pollutants from the water, and reducing coastal erosion. The aerial roots of mangroves hold back sediments and reduce pollutants from sewage and aquaculture in estuaries and coastal waters.Coastal protection is another important function of mangrove forests, serving as a natural barrier against storms, typhoons, and tsunami, and thus protecting coastal inhabitants. Recent experiences of tsunami and major storms in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world have shown that mangroves can and have played important roles in absorbing and weakening wave energy as well as preventing damage caused by debris movement.

Mangrove forests play an important role in providing breeding grounds and habitats to a variety of fishes and other marine species of high commercial value, including mud crabs, mollusks, and prawns. Mangroves have been estimated to support 30% of the fish catch and almost 100% of the shrimp catch in Southeast Asia. The valuation of mangroves to fisheries alone has been estimated at US$ 1,700 per hectare per year in Matang, Malaysia.
– See more at: http://www.recoftc.org/site/resources/Mangroves-more-Carbon-Rich-and-Important-for-Climate-Change.php#sthash.XT34KcTH.dpuf

yahoo Answer And mangroves Resolved Question.

Sundarban_3_by_capmunir
Do you think,mangrove/forest are the heart of climate!?
Because the green.Save the Green.Save the mangroue /heritage.Worlds largest mangrove going to die.Coal-based Power Generation In Mangrove/Heritage.The matching agreement with the thermal power plants in Sundarbans
India is in the interest of the government to ensure the destruction of the Sundarbans. Sundarban 9 kih m distance (calculated according to the official kih 14 m) of the partnership is to create a test project in Rampal. Meanwhile, the coal-based thermal power plant near Sundarbans clearance for the project was adhidaphatara environment. The prosecution of the environment, including the Sundarbans pratibadamukhara become lovers. In addition, those of ordinary people in phumse.
According to sources, the heat from the power plant emissions of harmful substances in the Sundarbans. Still running Rampal torajora power implementation. The department is preparing for next month’s inauguration of sthapanakaja power. The Prime Minister of India. Manmohan sinke invite letter in the Foreign Ministry said.
However, the land required for the project has been 1 of the top 700 acres of the 847 acres acquired. 1 of 3 0 MW capacity power plant at the center of the coal will be needed more than 13 thousand tonnes. However long the source of the coal, it is not guaranteed.
http://bddesh.com

7 hours ago

Dhanraj Oli Dhanraj Oli
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The participation of indigenous peoples and local communities is crucial to the successful development and implementation of REDD+ mechanisms. The Community Manual presents basic information on climate change oriented toward audiences in communities to help provide information needed by indigenous peoples and other local communities to participate more effectively in planning and decision-making as REDD+ activities are planned and tested.

The topics covered include the basics of how and why climate is changing, the carbon cycle and the role of forests in climate processes; climate policy; ecosystem services and finally the basic information on the discussion in progress for a REDD+ mechanism and some of the ways being proposed for REDD+ to mitigate climate change and to bring benefits to assist both countries and communities to develop sustainably and adapt to climate change, while maintaining healthy ecosystems.

Climate Change & the Role of Forests: A Community Manual is part of a series of products created to provide training to indigenous peoples’ organizations and local NGOs to support their efforts to bring information to indigenous peoples and local communities on the basics of climate change and REDD+. Other products include the Training of Trainers Manual and a Training Toolkit.

The manual and other materials were piloted in collaboration with CI-Guyana and the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in Guyana in November 2009 and April 2010, with participants from local communities, indigenous peoples’ organizations, local government agencies, and local NGOs. The participants’ feedback was incorporated into the final products.

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Kano Kano
No mangrove is not the heart of the climate mangrove is only a small percentage of the worlds forests, however I and puzzled why they would want to build a coal fired station there, I mean the ground is soft
they would have problems with foundations, it is far from populations so it would involve distribution problems. transporting coal there would not be easy.
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anita anita
Yes
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ead ead
Yes.forest are the heart of climate!
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The coastal zone of South east asia

seasia_ranfrst_location_mapThe coastal zone of Bangladesh
2.1 Coastal boundary
Bangladesh, a flood plain delta, is
a land of rivers and canals. The
country is sloping gently from
the north to the south, meeting the Bay of Bengal at
the southern end. The whole coast runs parallel
to the Bay of Bengal, forming 710 km long coas
tline (CZPo, 2005). According to the coastal zone
policy (CZPo, 2005) of the Government of Bangladesh,
19 districts out of 64 ar
e in the co
astal zone
covering a total of 147 upazillas
1
(Figure-1) of the country. Out
of these 19 districts, only 12
districts meet the sea or
lower estuary directly.
Figure-1: Coastal zone of Bangladesh (Source: Islam, 2004)
The zone is divided into exposed and interior coast according to the position of land. The upazillas
that face the coast or river es
tuary are treated as exposed coas
tal zone. Total number of upazillas
that fall on exposed coasta
l zone is 48 in 12 distri
cts. A total of 99 upazilla
s that are located behind
the exposed coast are treated as interior coast.
The exposed coast embraces the sea directly and is
subject to be affected highly
by the anticipated sea level rise.
1
Upazilla is small administrative unit of Bangladesh (sub-district).
6

The Rivers On The Bay Of Bengal.

Brief Description (copy from UNSCO)
The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world (140,000 ha), lies on the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India’s Sundarbans World Heritage site inscribed in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. The area is known for its wide range of fauna, including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python.
Other Languages:
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[The Sundarbans] The Sundarbans © Peter Andersen
[The Sundarbans] [The Sundarbans] [The Sundarbans] [The Sundarbans]
Justification for Inscription

The Committee inscribed the site under criteria (ix) and (x) as one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world, which supports an exceptional biodiversity with a wide range of flora and fauna, including the Bengal Tiger and provides a significant example of on-going ecological processes (monsoon rains, flooding, delta formation, tidal influence and plant colonisation).
Long Description

The Sundarbans consist of three wildlife sanctuaries (Sundarbans West, East and South) lying on disjunct deltaic islands just west of the main outflow of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers, close to the border with India.

The sanctuaries are intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mud flats and small islands of salt tolerant mangrove forests. The area is flooded with brackish water during high tides which mix with freshwater from inland rivers.

The larger channels are often a kilometre or two wide and generally run in a north-south direction. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the strong tidal forces and the easily eroded clay and silt deposits. But apart from Baleswar River the waterways carry little freshwater as they are cut off from the Ganges, the outflow of which has shifted from the Hooghly-Bhagirathi channels in India progressively eastwards since the 17th century. They are kept open largely by the diurnal tidal flow.

Alluvial deposits are geologically very recent and deep. The soil is a clay loam with alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands in the coastal limits, where sandy beaches occur. The monsoon rains, flooding, delta formation, and tidal influence combine in the Sundarbans to for a dynamic landscape that is constantly changing.

Sands collect at the river mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into dunes by the strong south-west monsoon winds. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Bengal where they form mud flats in the lee of the dunes. These become overlain with sand from the dunes and develop into grassy middens.

Because of the dominance of saline conditions, the forest flora in the western Sundarbans is not as diverse as in the east. Forest areas are dominated by a few species mostly Sundri and Gewu and patches of Nypa palm and several other of the 27 species of mangrove that are found in the Sundarbans.

The property is the only remaining habitat in the lower Bengal Basin for a variety of faunal species. The presence of 49 mammal species has been documented. Of these, no less than five spectacular species, Javan rhinoceros, water buffalo, swamp deer, gaur and probably hog deer have become locally extirpated since the beginning of the 21st century.

The Sundarbans of Bangladesh and India support one of the largest populations of Royal Bengal Tiger with an estimated 350 individuals. Other mammals include spotted deer and wild boar, three species of wild cat and Ganges River dolphin, which occurs in some of the larger waterways. Of the three species of otter, smooth-coated otter is domesticated by fishermen and used to drive fish into their nets.

Some 53 reptile species and eight amphibian species have been recorded of these mugger crocodile is now extinct, probably as a result of past over-exploitation, although it still occurs in at least one location nearby. Estuarine crocodile still survives but its numbers have been greatly depleted through hunting and trapping for skins. Four species of marine turtle have been recorded from the area. The varied and colourful bird-life to be seen along its waterways is one of the Sundarbans’ greatest attractions. There are some 315 species of waterfowl, raptors and forest birds including nine species of kingfisher and the magnificent white-bellied sea eagle.
Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

All three wildlife sanctuaries were established in 1977 under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, having first been gazetted as forest reserves in 1878. The total area of wildlife sanctuaries was extended in 1996. The entire Sundarbans is reserved forest, established under the Indian Forest Act, 1878.

Mangrove forests in threats(copyed from wwf web)

/4726914819_c8253f16be.jpg”>4726914819_c8253f16beMangrove forests in threats(copyed from wwf web)
Severely degraded mangroves due to rising sea levels and clearing for commercial shrimp and salt … / ©: WWF-Canon / Adam OSWELL
Severely degraded mangroves due to rising sea levels and clearing for commercial shrimp and salt farms, Thailand. These factors have contributed greatly to the destruction of large tracts of coastal mangroves in the country.
© WWF-Canon / Adam OSWELL
Mangrove forests are one of the world’s most threatened tropical ecosystems
More than 35% of the world’s mangroves are already gone. The figure is as high as 50% in countries such as India, the Philippines, and Vietnam, while in the Americas they are being cleared at a rate faster than tropical rainforests.
Threats to mangrove forests and their habitats include:
Clearing: Mangrove forests have often been seen as unproductive and smelly, and so cleared to make room for agricultural land, human settlements and infrastructure (such as harbours), and industrial areas. More recently, clearing for tourist developments, shrimp aquaculture, and salt farms has also taken place. This clearing is a major factor behind mangrove loss around the word.

Overharvesting: Mangrove trees are used for firewood, construction wood, wood chip and pulp production, charcoal production, and animal fodder. While harvesting has taken place for centuries, in some parts of the world it is no longer sustainable, threatening the future of the forests.

River changes: Dams and irrigation reduce the amount of water reaching mangrove forests, changing the salinity level of water in the forest. If salinity becomes too high, the mangroves cannot survive. Freshwater diversions can also lead to mangroves drying out. In addition, increased erosion due to land deforestation can massively increase the amount of sediment in rivers. This can overcome the mangrove forest’s filtering ability, leading to the forest being smothered.

Overfishing: The global overfishing crisis facing the world’s oceans has effects far beyond the directly overfished population. The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered.

Destruction of coral reefs: Coral reefs provide the first barrier against currents and strong waves. When they are destroyed, the stronger-than-normal waves and currents reaching the coast can undermine the fine sediment in which the mangroves grow. This can prevent seedlings from taking root and wash away nutrients essential for mangrove ecosystems.

Pollution: Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man-made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests, while oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees.

Climate change: Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change.